Bunkers and Silos

Bunkers and silos are the vessels of a round, square or rectangular form for storage of bulk material.

Bunkers are the containers, the minimum size of which in plan exceeds the height h1. The plane of rupture, drawn through the intersection of a vertical wall and a funnel, crosses the surface of the bulk material at a certain filling inside a vessel.

Silos are relatively high and narrow vessels, the height h1of which exceeds the minimum size in plan. The plane of rupture, drawn through the intersection of a vertical wall and a funnel of a silo, crosses the limiting upper level of filling beyond the range of a vessel. For silos with diameter of 18 m and more the ratio of height to the minimum size in plan may be less than 1.5.

Bunkers and silos are placed either by groups or individually outdoors and indoors.

Funnels and outlets have symmetric and asymmetric shape and location in plan.

In some cases, the lining inside bunkers and silos is provided to protect the shell from abrasion by moving bulk materials. Sometimes, instead of the lining device the shell thickness is increased in comparison with the calculated one.

The inner surface of a bunker or silo shell should not have projecting parts: flanges, ribs, clamps, etc. The projecting parts reduce functional qualities of a structure, worsening the flowability of materials; contribute to the formation of the arches and freezes, causing the additional pressure on the shell and shocks by collapsing. The use of vertical gussets is irrational and nonrelevant to the shell structure due their static work. This false "reinforcement" of a junction does not spread throughout the shell connection line and leads to stress concentration at the gussets. The occurred shell destruction proved the complete inefficacy and harmfulness of the like separately set gussets.

The transfer of the concentrated forces of the columns to the shell is rational not through gussets, welded by the guides in the vertical planes, but through horizontal rigid elements that distribute the load along the horizontal sections of the shell.

It is recommended to nominate the angle of at least 60 ° to facilitate the eruption of material through the bunker or silo funnel.

The main loads of bunkers and silos are filling loads, and in addition constant loads, and atmospheric, temperature and other effects.

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